CO2 storage and utilization through mineral carbonation

  • Development of technology to produce carbonate salts while storing CO2 through direct and indirect carbonation using seawater/brine as the solvent
  • Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are produced simultaneously using seawater, allowing for the storage of more than 6.7 kg CO2/per ton of seawater via indirect carbonation.
  • Calcium carbonate produced through indirect carbonation using seawater and industrial by-products is referred to as nano- and micro-sized vaterite particles.

  • Facile synthesis of metastable vaterite superstructures with a hexagonal-bipyramidal morphology using seawater
  • New insights into the synthesis of more complex three-dimensional CaCO3 crystalline structures in seawater without hazardous chemicals, organic surfactants, or intricate experimental conditions.

  • Design of pH-sensitive magnetic vaterite (Fe3O4/CaCO3) nanostructures for various biomedical applications


  • Can be used in environmental purification as a flue gas desulfurization agent and water purification agent.
  • Personal care products: This material can be used in cleansing foam, and dead skin and makeup removers.
  • Biomedical applications: Can be used as a drug delivery material and drug encapsulation carrier in regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering

Zeolite synthesis using industrial by-products

  • After the indirect carbonation of industrial by-products, zeolite was synthesized using Si and Al of residual by-products.
  • This approach to zeolite synthesis will enhance the economics of indirect carbonation.


  • Adsorbent of heavy metals and gases
  • Catalyst
  • Ion exchange

Encapsulation of probiotics with calcium carbonate

  • Calcium carbonate produced by indirect carbonation is used as a probiotic encapsulation agent.
  • The encapsulated probiotics were protected from gastric juice and bile, resulting in almost 100% of the probiotics arriving in the intestine.

< CLSM results of probiotics encapsulated with calcium carbonate >


  • Probiotics with improved intestinal reach and storage stability
  • Immunity-enhancing food

Magnesium recovery from seawater/brine

  • Production of high-purity MgSO4 from seawater desalination brine
  • The process involves the pre-precipitation of Mg(OH)2 using alkali, concentration of Mg using sulfuric acid, and precipitation of MgSO4 using ethanol.
  • As the purity of the recovered MgSO4 was approximately 99.8%, it could be used to re-mineralize fresh water after the seawater desalination process.

  • Production of MgCO3 from seawater or brine using CCU technology
  • Production of nesquehonite(MgCO3·3H2O) and hydromagnesite(Mg5(CO)4(OH)2·4H2O) from dissolved magnesium in seawater/brine
  • Precipitation of Mg in seawater/brine using alkali industrial by-products and subsequent injection of CO2 to recover Mg


  • Used in the automotive industry to reduce weight and improve vehicle performance
  • Aerospace and defense industry
  • Materials for electronic devices
  • Raw materials for the production of magnesium oxide and other derivatives